[65], Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, and bolstered by some acquittals in the continuing Plot trials, which seemed to him to indicate a more favourable public mood towards Catholicism, Charles dissolved the English Parliament, for a second time that year, in mid-1679. Algunhas dos seus amantes e dos seus fillos naturais recibiron ducados e condados. Power passed to five politicians known collectively by a whimsical acronym as the Cabal—Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury) and Lauderdale. [68] Protestant politicians such as the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, Lord Russell and the Duke of Monmouth were implicated in the plot. Having lost the support of Parliament, Danby resigned his post of Lord High Treasurer, but received a pardon from the king. Intentou recrutar un exército, pero fracasou debido ás súas penurias económicas. By 1674 England had gained nothing from the Anglo-Dutch War, and the Cavalier Parliament refused to provide further funds, forcing Charles to make peace. Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, founded the Royal Observatory and supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton. Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e Irlanda e VII de Escocia. Á súa chegada a Escocia, o 23 de xuño de 1650, Carlos subscribiu formalmente o pacto. O Parlamento Cabaleiro —aínda que contrario a conceder tolerancia relixiosa aos católicos— opúxose á Declaración de Indulxencia baseándose en principios constitucionais —sostendo a incompetencia real para suspender leis de forma arbitraria— máis que políticos. For doubts over his intention to convert before 1685 see, for example. Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy. Carlos II (Palacio de St. James, Londres, 29 de mayo de 1630 - Palacio de Whitehall, Londres, 6 de febrero de 1685) fue rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda desde el 29 de mayo de 1660 hasta su muerte. [63], The new English Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to Charles. Outra tormenta política á que Carlos houbo de facer fronte foi a sucesión ao trono. [22] The new so-called Convention Parliament assembled on 25 April 1660, and soon afterwards welcomed the Declaration of Breda, in which Charles promised lenience and tolerance. Charles II was the eldest surviving child of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria of France. Carlos consentiu en abolir anticuados deberes feudales que foran restablecidos polo seu pai; a cambio, o Parlamento concedeulle unha renda anual de 1 200 000 £. Luís viuse obrigado a facer a paz coa Tripla Alianza, pero mantivo os seus plans bélicos. [7], At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who later falsely claimed that they had secretly married. The anniversary of the Restoration (which was also Charles's birthday)—29 May—was recognised in England until the mid-nineteenth century as Oak Apple Day, after the Royal Oak in which Charles hid during his escape from the forces of Oliver Cromwell. Desgraciadamente para el, a Cámara dos Comúns resistiuse a consideralo implicado contra a súa vontade no escándalo, crendo en cambio que fora el o autor daquela política. - m. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. In defiance of the royal will, the House of Commons declared that the dissolution of Parliament did not interrupt impeachment proceedings, and that the pardon was therefore invalid. Con todo, esta asignación resultou de pouca utilidade durante a maior parte do seu reinado. This gathered Spanish support for a restoration in return for Charles's contribution to the war against France. During Charles's reign all legal documents stating a, From the death of his father to his defeat at the, All dates in this article unless otherwise noted are given in the. [25], In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. Aínda que previamente fora favorable á Coroa, durante a década de 1670 o Parlamento Cabaleiro distanciouse dela polas guerras emprendidas polo rei e pola súa política relixiosa. En 1646, o seu pai, temendo pola súa seguridade, ordenoulle marcharse a Francia e reunirse coa súa nai, que se atopaba alí no exilio. Durante o mesmo ano, con todo, vendeu Dunquerque, unha posición estratéxica moito máis valiosa, ao rei francés Luís XIV por 40.000 £. When negotiations with the Scots stalled, Charles authorised General Montrose to land in the Orkney Islands with a small army to threaten the Scots with invasion, in the hope of forcing an agreement more to his liking. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, depicted extensively in art, literature and media, Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater, Elizabeth Berkeley, née Bagot, Dowager Countess of Falmouth, Francis I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, "Proclamation: of King Charles II, 5 January 1649 (NAS. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain, France and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, Edinburgh,[9] but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland. His subjects resented paying taxes that were spent on his mistresses and their children,[83] many of whom received dukedoms or earldoms. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. (2015). In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more likely to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. [19], After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. (2013). [78] He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[77] on 14 February.[79]. Tras seis semanas de apuradas fugas, Carlos conseguiu abandonar Inglaterra. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested.[2]. [74] In the days between his collapse and his death, Charles endured a variety of torturous treatments including bloodletting, purging and cupping in hopes of effecting a recovery. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England,[57] but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. In fact, the Cabal rarely acted in concert, and the court was often divided between two factions led by Arlington and Buckingham, with Arlington the more successful. Today it is possible to assess him without the taint of partisanship, and he is seen as more of a lovable rogue—in the words of his contemporary John Evelyn, "a prince of many virtues and many great imperfections, debonair, easy of access, not bloody or cruel". In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit". A diferenza do seu pai, Carlos II foi hábil na súa relación co Parlamento. A great fire, however, destroyed Charles's lodgings at Newmarket, which forced him to leave the races early, thus inadvertently avoiding the planned attack. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. Many of them were prosecuted and their estates seized, with Charles replacing judges and sheriffs at will and packing juries to achieve conviction. "[91] The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. By the end of the battle Charles's force was about 1,000 and with Dunkirk given to the English the prospect of a Royalist expedition to England was dashed. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. Charles's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured and executed. Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. Carlos esforzouse por manter o Tratado en segredo, especialmente a cláusula concernente á súa conversión. Fíxose soado polos seus numerosos fillos ilexítimos, dos que recoñeceu a catorce. News of the failed plot was leaked. On the last evening of his life he was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of Father John Huddleston, though the extent to which he was fully conscious or committed, and with whom the idea originated, is unclear. Hutton says Charles was a popular king in his own day and a "legendary figure" in British history. For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household[29] and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax. Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. [8] Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.[2]. [5] Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. [52] Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay to the company for a nominal sum of £10 paid in gold. Their first son was born about a year before Charles, but died within a day. En 1672 Carlos asinou a Declaración de Indulxencia, na que manifestaba a súa intención de suspender todas as leis que penalizaban aos católicos e a outros disidentes relixiosos. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England,[1] known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. O poder pasou a mans dun grupo de cinco políticos coñecidos como "a Cábala" ou camarilla, polas iniciais dos títulos dos seus membros: Thomas Clifford, Primeiro Barón de Clifford; Henry Bennet, Primeiro Conde de Arlington; George Viliers, Segundo Duque de Buckingham; Anthony Ashley Cooper, Primeiro Barón de Ashley (coñecido despois como Conde de Shaftesbury) e John Maitland, Primeiro Duque de Lauderdale. The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. Sir Wren construíu igualmente o Hospital Real de Chelsea, que Carlos fundou como fogar para soldados retirados en 1681, e no que se acha desde 1692 unha grande estatua de Carlos II vestido ao xeito da Roma clásica. His other mistresses included Moll Davis, Nell Gwyn, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Lucy Walter and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. Algúns dos rexicidas foron executados en 1660; a outros sentencioúselles a cadea perpetua. [1] O presunto herdeiro era, polo tanto, o seu irmán, o católico Xacobe, duque de York. (Eds.). Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. En 1670 Carlos, buscando resolver os seus problemas financeiros, acordou o Tratado de Dover, polo cal Luís XIV comprometíase a pagarlle 200.000 £ anuais. The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance;[32] the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited expelled non-conforming clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished. [40] Charles and his brother James joined and directed the fire-fighting effort. Charleston, South Carolina, and South Kingstown, Rhode Island, are named after him. [17] The Commonwealth made the Treaty of Paris with France in 1657 to join them in war against Spain in the Netherlands.
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